Autism & ADHD
BM-BCI as a treatment for clients with various disorders has rapidly expanded in the past years, due to increasing technological developments which made the registration of EEG activity more accurate and available for therapists.
BM-BCI is a innovative therapeutic solution that is used to optimize the activity of the brain that deviates from normality in a variety of clinical disorders, such as autism.
However, the advent of computerized, quantitative methods, together with new neuroimaging techniques as brain sources localization and the availability of normative databases both of normal subjects and of subjects with definite pathologies has greatly enhanced the clinical application in neurodevelopmental disorder
- BM (Brain Mapping) -BCI ( Brain Computer Interface) aims to improve brain functioning by targeting brain-wave correlates of functional deficits, based on the quantitative evaluation of the individual’s EEG rather than on traditional diagnostic categories or observable symptoms.
- For autism, BM-BCI showed improvements in sustained attention, sensory/cognitive awareness, communication.
- BM-BCI should be conducted by a well-trained professional with expertise in brain function beyond simply an ability to operate equipment, to enhance safety and optimize effectiveness.
BM-BCI FOR AUTISM
BM-BCI was initially proposed for the treatment of autism because Brain Mapping studies of autism demonstrate:
(1) reduced connectivity between cortical areas, especially with increasing distance;
(2) a lack of hemispheric differences;
(3) a wide variety of significant and sometimes contradictory EEG differences, including decreased and increased frontal power; increased generalized activity; increased and reduced activity in frontal, central, and temporal regions; decreased activity, and increased and activity.
These diverse and variable physiologic differences in the brain probably reflect the “pervasive” functional variability that characterizes autism.
BM-BCI significantly increased sustained attention and sensory/cognitive awareness scores on subscales of the parent-rated Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC).
Most studies that examined the effects of BM-BCI in children and adolescents with autism compared pre- and post-treatment Brain Maps and found that EEG activity significantly changed after BM-BCI.